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// ------------------------------------------------------------------------
// $RCSfile: Distribution.cpp,v $
// ------------------------------------------------------------------------
// $Revision: 1.3.4.1 $
// ------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Copyright: see Copyright.readme
// ------------------------------------------------------------------------
//
// Class: Distribution
//   The class for the OPAL Distribution command.
//
// ------------------------------------------------------------------------
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#include <cmath>
#include <cfloat>
#include <iomanip>
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <vector>

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#include "Distribution/Distribution.h"
#include "AbstractObjects/Expressions.h"
#include "Attributes/Attributes.h"
#include "Utilities/Options.h"
#include "halton1d_sequence.hh"
#include "AbstractObjects/OpalData.h"
#include "Algorithms/PartBunch.h"
#include "Algorithms/PartBins.h"
#include "Algorithms/bet/EnvelopeBunch.h"
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#include "Structure/Beam.h"
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#include "Structure/BoundaryGeometry.h"
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#include "Algorithms/PartBinsCyc.h"
#include "BasicActions/Option.h"
#include "Distribution/LaserProfile.h"
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#include <gsl/gsl_cdf.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_randist.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_sf_erf.h>
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#include <gsl/gsl_linalg.h>
#include <gsl/gsl_blas.h>
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extern Inform *gmsg;

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#define DISTDBG	
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//
// Class Distribution
// ------------------------------------------------------------------------

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namespace AttributesT
{
    enum AttributesT {
                      DISTRIBUTION,
                      FNAME,
                      WRITETOFILE,
                      WEIGHT,
                      INPUTMOUNITS,
                      EMITTED,
                      EMISSIONSTEPS,
                      EMISSIONMODEL,
                      EKIN,
                      ELASER,
                      W,
                      FE,
                      CATHTEMP,
                      NBIN,
                      XMULT,
                      YMULT,
                      ZMULT,
                      TMULT,
                      PXMULT,
                      PYMULT,
                      PZMULT,
                      OFFSETX,
                      OFFSETY,
                      OFFSETZ,
                      OFFSETT,
                      OFFSETPX,
                      OFFSETPY,
                      OFFSETPZ,
                      SIGMAX,
                      SIGMAY,
                      SIGMAR,
                      SIGMAZ,
                      SIGMAT,
                      TPULSEFWHM,
                      TRISE,
                      TFALL,
                      SIGMAPX,
                      SIGMAPY,
                      SIGMAPZ,
                      MX,
                      MY,
                      MZ,
                      MT,
                      CUTOFFX,
                      CUTOFFY,
                      CUTOFFR,
                      CUTOFFLONG,
                      CUTOFFPX,
                      CUTOFFPY,
                      CUTOFFPZ,
                      FTOSCAMPLITUDE,
                      FTOSCPERIODS,
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                      R,                          // the correlation matrix (a la transport)
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                      CORRX,
                      CORRY,
                      CORRZ,
                      CORRT,
                      R51,
                      R52,
                      R61,
                      R62,
                      LASERPROFFN,
                      IMAGENAME,
                      INTENSITYCUT,
                      NPDARKCUR,
                      INWARDMARGIN,
                      EINITHR,
                      FNA,
                      FNB,
                      FNY,
                      FNVYZERO,
                      FNVYSECOND,
                      FNPHIW,
                      FNBETA,
                      FNFIELDTHR,
                      FNMAXEMI,
                      SECONDARYFLAG,
                      NEMISSIONMODE,
                      VSEYZERO,                   // sey_0 in Vaughn's model.
                      VEZERO,                     // Energy related to sey_0 in Vaughan's model.
                      VSEYMAX,                    // sey max in Vaughan's model.
                      VEMAX,                      // Emax in Vaughan's model.
                      VKENERGY,                   // Fitting parameter denotes the roughness of
                                                  // surface for impact energy in Vaughn's model.
                      VKTHETA,                    // Fitting parameter denotes the roughness of
                                                  // surface for impact angle in Vaughn's model.
                      VVTHERMAL,                  // Thermal velocity of Maxwellian distribution
                                                  // of secondaries in Vaughan's model.
                      VW,
                      SURFMATERIAL,               // Add material type, currently 0 for copper
                                                  // and 1 for stainless steel.
                      SIZE
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    };
}

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namespace LegacyAttributesT
{
    enum LegacyAttributesT {
    // DESCRIPTION OF THE DISTRIBUTION:
    DEBIN,
    SBIN,
    TEMISSION,
    SIGLASER,
    AG,
    SIGMAPT,
    TRANSVCUTOFF,
    CUTOFF,
    Z,
    T,
    PZ,
    PT,
    ALPHAX,
    ALPHAY,
    BETAX,
    BETAY,
    DX,
    DDX,
    DY,
    DDY,
    SIZE
};
}

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Distribution::Distribution():
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    Definition(AttributesT::SIZE + LegacyAttributesT::SIZE, "DISTRIBUTION",
               "The DISTRIBUTION statement defines data for the 6D particle distribution."),
    distrTypeT_m(DistrTypeT::NODIST),
    emitting_m(false),
    scan_m(false),
    emissionModel_m(EmissionModelT::NONE),
    tEmission_m(0.0),
    tBin_m(0.0),
    currentEmissionTime_m(0.0),
    currentEnergyBin_m(0.0),
    currentSampleBin_m(0.0),
    numberOfEnergyBins_m(0),
    numberOfSampleBins_m(0),
    energyBins_m(NULL),
    energyBinHist_m(NULL),
    randGenEmit_m(NULL),
    pTotThermal_m(0.0),
    cathodeWorkFunc_m(0.0),
    laserEnergy_m(0.0),
    cathodeFermiEnergy_m(0.0),
    cathodeTemp_m(0.0),
    emitEnergyUpperLimit_m(0.0),
    inputMoUnits_m(InputMomentumUnitsT::NONE),
    sigmaTRise_m(0.0),
    sigmaTFall_m(0.0),
    tPulseLengthFWHM_m(0.0),
    laserProfileFileName_m(""),
    laserImageName_m(""),
    laserIntensityCut_m(0.0),
    laserProfile_m(NULL),
    darkCurrentParts_m(0),
    darkInwardMargin_m(0.0),
    eInitThreshold_m(0.0),
    workFunction_m(0.0),
    fieldEnhancement_m(0.0),
    fieldThrFN_m(0.0),
    maxFN_m(0),
    paraFNA_m(0.0),
    paraFNB_m(0.0),
    paraFNY_m(0.0),
    paraFNVYSe_m(0.0),
    paraFNVYZe_m(0.0),
    secondaryFlag_m(0),
    ppVw_m(0.0),
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    vVThermal_m(0.0),
    avrgpz_m(0.0) {
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    SetAttributes();

    Distribution *defaultDistribution = clone("UNNAMED_Distribution");
    defaultDistribution->builtin = true;
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    try {
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        OpalData::getInstance()->define(defaultDistribution);
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    } catch(...) {
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        delete defaultDistribution;
    }

    SetFieldEmissionParameters();
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}
/**
 *
 *
 * @param name
 * @param parent
 */
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Distribution::Distribution(const std::string &name, Distribution *parent):
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    Definition(name, parent),
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    distT_m(parent->distT_m),
    distrTypeT_m(DistrTypeT::NODIST),
    emitting_m(parent->emitting_m),
    scan_m(parent->scan_m),
    particleRefData_m(parent->particleRefData_m),
    addedDistributions_m(parent->addedDistributions_m),
    particlesPerDist_m(parent->particlesPerDist_m),
    emissionModel_m(parent->emissionModel_m),
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    tEmission_m(parent->tEmission_m),
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    tBin_m(parent->tBin_m),
    currentEmissionTime_m(parent->currentEmissionTime_m),
    currentEnergyBin_m(parent->currentEmissionTime_m),
    currentSampleBin_m(parent->currentSampleBin_m),
    numberOfEnergyBins_m(parent->numberOfEnergyBins_m),
    numberOfSampleBins_m(parent->numberOfSampleBins_m),
    energyBins_m(NULL),
    energyBinHist_m(NULL),
    randGenEmit_m(parent->randGenEmit_m),
    pTotThermal_m(parent->pTotThermal_m),
    cathodeWorkFunc_m(parent->cathodeWorkFunc_m),
    laserEnergy_m(parent->laserEnergy_m),
    cathodeFermiEnergy_m(parent->cathodeFermiEnergy_m),
    cathodeTemp_m(parent->cathodeTemp_m),
    emitEnergyUpperLimit_m(parent->emitEnergyUpperLimit_m),
    xDist_m(parent->xDist_m),
    pxDist_m(parent->pxDist_m),
    yDist_m(parent->yDist_m),
    pyDist_m(parent->pyDist_m),
    tOrZDist_m(parent->tOrZDist_m),
    pzDist_m(parent->pzDist_m),
    xWrite_m(parent->xWrite_m),
    pxWrite_m(parent->pxWrite_m),
    yWrite_m(parent->yWrite_m),
    pyWrite_m(parent->pyWrite_m),
    tOrZWrite_m(parent->tOrZWrite_m),
    pzWrite_m(parent->pzWrite_m),
    inputMoUnits_m(parent->inputMoUnits_m),
    sigmaTRise_m(parent->sigmaTRise_m),
    sigmaTFall_m(parent->sigmaTFall_m),
    tPulseLengthFWHM_m(parent->tPulseLengthFWHM_m),
    sigmaR_m(parent->sigmaR_m),
    sigmaP_m(parent->sigmaP_m),
    cutoffR_m(parent->cutoffR_m),
    cutoffP_m(parent->cutoffP_m),
    distCorr_m(parent->distCorr_m),
    laserProfileFileName_m(parent->laserProfileFileName_m),
    laserImageName_m(parent->laserImageName_m),
    laserIntensityCut_m(parent->laserIntensityCut_m),
    laserProfile_m(NULL),
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    darkCurrentParts_m(parent->darkCurrentParts_m),
    darkInwardMargin_m(parent->darkInwardMargin_m),
    eInitThreshold_m(parent->eInitThreshold_m),
    workFunction_m(parent->workFunction_m),
    fieldEnhancement_m(parent->fieldEnhancement_m),
    fieldThrFN_m(parent->fieldThrFN_m),
    maxFN_m(parent->maxFN_m),
    paraFNA_m(parent-> paraFNA_m),
    paraFNB_m(parent-> paraFNB_m),
    paraFNY_m(parent-> paraFNY_m),
    paraFNVYSe_m(parent-> paraFNVYSe_m),
    paraFNVYZe_m(parent-> paraFNVYZe_m),
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    secondaryFlag_m(parent->secondaryFlag_m),
    ppVw_m(parent->ppVw_m),
    vVThermal_m(parent->vVThermal_m),
    tRise_m(parent->tRise_m),
    tFall_m(parent->tFall_m),
    sigmaRise_m(parent->sigmaRise_m),
    sigmaFall_m(parent->sigmaFall_m),
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    cutoff_m(parent->cutoff_m),
    avrgpz_m(parent->avrgpz_m){
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}

Distribution::~Distribution() {

    if((Ippl::getNodes() == 1) && (os_m.is_open()))
        os_m.close();

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    if (energyBins_m != NULL) {
        delete energyBins_m;
        energyBins_m = NULL;
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    }

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    if (energyBinHist_m != NULL) {
        gsl_histogram_free(energyBinHist_m);
        energyBinHist_m = NULL;
    }

    if (randGenEmit_m != NULL) {
        delete randGenEmit_m;
        randGenEmit_m = NULL;
    }

    if(laserProfile_m) {
        delete laserProfile_m;
        laserProfile_m = NULL;
    }
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}

/**
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 * At the moment only write the header into the file dist.dat
 * PartBunch will then append (very uggly)
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 * @param
 * @param
 * @param
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 */
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void Distribution::WriteToFile() {
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    if(Ippl::getNodes() == 1) {
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        if(os_m.is_open()) {
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            ;
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        } else {
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            *gmsg << " Write distribution to file data/dist.dat" << endl;
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            std::string file("data/dist.dat");
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            os_m.open(file.c_str());
            if(os_m.bad()) {
                *gmsg << "Unable to open output file " <<  file << endl;
            }
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            os_m << "# x y ti px py pz "  << std::endl;
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            os_m.close();
        }
    }
}

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/// Distribution can only be replaced by another distribution.
bool Distribution::canReplaceBy(Object *object) {
    return dynamic_cast<Distribution *>(object) != 0;
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}

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Distribution *Distribution::clone(const std::string &name) {
    return new Distribution(name, this);
}
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void Distribution::execute() {
}
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void Distribution::update() {
}
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void Distribution::Create(size_t &numberOfParticles, double massIneV) {
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    SetFieldEmissionParameters();
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    switch (distrTypeT_m) {
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    case DistrTypeT::FROMFILE:
        CreateDistributionFromFile(numberOfParticles, massIneV);
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        break;
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    case DistrTypeT::GAUSS:
        CreateDistributionGauss(numberOfParticles, massIneV);
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        break;
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    case DistrTypeT::BINOMIAL:
        CreateDistributionBinomial(numberOfParticles, massIneV);
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        break;
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    case DistrTypeT::FLATTOP:
        CreateDistributionFlattop(numberOfParticles, massIneV);
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        break;
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    case DistrTypeT::GUNGAUSSFLATTOPTH:
        CreateDistributionFlattop(numberOfParticles, massIneV);
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        break;
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    case DistrTypeT::ASTRAFLATTOPTH:
        CreateDistributionFlattop(numberOfParticles, massIneV);
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        break;
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    default:
        INFOMSG("Distribution unknown." << endl;);
        break;
    }
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    // Scale and shift coordinates according to distribution input.
    ScaleDistCoordinates();
    ShiftDistCoordinates(massIneV);
}
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void  Distribution::CreatePriPart(PartBunch *beam, BoundaryGeometry &bg) {
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    if(Options::ppdebug) {  // This is Parallel Plate Benchmark.
        int pc = 0;
        size_t lowMark = beam->getLocalNum();
        double vw = this->GetVw();
        double vt = this->GetvVThermal();
        double f_max = vw / vt * exp(-0.5);
        double test_a = vt / vw;
        double test_asq = test_a * test_a;
        size_t count = 0;
        size_t N_mean = static_cast<size_t>(floor(bg.getN() / Ippl::getNodes()));
        size_t N_extra = static_cast<size_t>(bg.getN() - N_mean * Ippl::getNodes());
        if(Ippl::myNode() == 0)
            N_mean += N_extra;
        if(bg.getN() != 0) {
            for(size_t i = 0; i < bg.getN(); i++) {
                if(pc == Ippl::myNode()) {
                    if(count < N_mean) {
                        /*==============Parallel Plate Benchmark=====================================*/
                        double test_s = 1;
                        double f_x = 0;
                        double test_x = 0;
                        while(test_s > f_x) {
                            test_s = IpplRandom();
                            test_s *= f_max;
                            test_x = IpplRandom();
                            test_x *= 10 * test_a; //range for normalized emission speed(0,10*test_a);
                            f_x = test_x / test_asq * exp(-test_x * test_x / 2 / test_asq);
                        }
                        double v_emi = test_x * vw;
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                        double betaemit = v_emi / Physics::c;
                        double betagamma = betaemit / sqrt(1 - betaemit * betaemit);
                        /*============================================================================ */
                        beam->create(1);
                        if(pc != 0) {
                            beam->R[lowMark + count] = bg.getCooridinate(Ippl::myNode() * N_mean + count + N_extra);
                            beam->P[lowMark + count] = betagamma * bg.getMomenta(Ippl::myNode() * N_mean + count);
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                        } else {
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                            beam->R[lowMark + count] = bg.getCooridinate(count);
                            beam->P[lowMark + count] = betagamma * bg.getMomenta(count);
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                        }
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                        beam->Bin[lowMark + count] = 0;
                        beam->PType[lowMark + count] = 0; // create primary particle bunch;
                        beam->TriID[lowMark + count] = 0;
                        beam->Q[lowMark + count] = beam->getChargePerParticle();
                        beam->LastSection[lowMark + count] = 0;
                        beam->Ef[lowMark + count] = Vector_t(0.0);
                        beam->Bf[lowMark + count] = Vector_t(0.0);
                        beam->dt[lowMark + count] = beam->getdT();
                        count ++;
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                    }
                }
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                pc++;
                if(pc == Ippl::getNodes())
                    pc = 0;
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            }
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            bg.clearCooridinateArray();
            bg.clearMomentaArray();
            beam->boundp();
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        }
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        *gmsg << *beam << endl;
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    } else {// Normal procedure to create primary particles
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        int pc = 0;
        size_t lowMark = beam->getLocalNum();
        size_t count = 0;
        size_t N_mean = static_cast<size_t>(floor(bg.getN() / Ippl::getNodes()));
        size_t N_extra = static_cast<size_t>(bg.getN() - N_mean * Ippl::getNodes());
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        if(Ippl::myNode() == 0)
            N_mean += N_extra;
        if(bg.getN() != 0) {
            for(size_t i = 0; i < bg.getN(); i++) {
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                if(pc == Ippl::myNode()) {
                    if(count < N_mean) {
                        beam->create(1);
                        if(pc != 0)
                            beam->R[lowMark + count] = bg.getCooridinate(Ippl::myNode() * N_mean + count + N_extra); // node 0 will emit the particle with coordinate ID from 0 to N_mean+N_extra, so other nodes should shift to node_number*N_mean+N_extra
                        else
                            beam->R[lowMark + count] = bg.getCooridinate(count); // for node0 the particle number N_mean =  N_mean + N_extra
                        beam->P[lowMark + count] = Vector_t(0.0);
                        beam->Bin[lowMark + count] = 0;
                        beam->PType[lowMark + count] = 0; // create primary particle bunch.
                        beam->TriID[lowMark + count] = 0;
                        beam->Q[lowMark + count] = beam->getChargePerParticle();
                        beam->LastSection[lowMark + count] = 0;
                        beam->Ef[lowMark + count] = Vector_t(0.0);
                        beam->Bf[lowMark + count] = Vector_t(0.0);
                        beam->dt[lowMark + count] = beam->getdT();
                        count++;
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                    }
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                }
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                pc++;
                if(pc == Ippl::getNodes())
                    pc = 0;
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            }
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        }
        bg.clearCooridinateArray();
        beam->boundp();//fixme if bg.getN()==0?
    }
    *gmsg << *beam << endl;
}
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void Distribution::DoRestartOpalT(PartBunch &beam, size_t Np, int restartStep) {
    h5_file_t *H5file;
    h5_int64_t rc;
    std::string fn;
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    IpplTimings::startTimer(beam.distrReload_m);
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    //        beam.setTEmission(Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::SIZE + LegacyAttributesT::TEMISSION]));
    fn = OpalData::getInstance()->getInputBasename() + std::string(".h5");
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#ifdef PARALLEL_IO
    H5file = H5OpenFile(fn.c_str(), H5_O_RDONLY, Ippl::getComm());
#else
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    H5file = H5OpenFile(fn.c_str(), H5_O_RDONLY, 0);
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#endif

    if(!H5file) {
        ERRORMSG("could not open file '" << fn << "';  exiting!" << endl);
        exit(0);
    }

    if(restartStep == -1) {
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        restartStep = H5GetNumSteps(H5file) - 1 ;
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        OpalData::getInstance()->setRestartStep(restartStep);
    } else {
        if(restartStep != H5GetNumSteps(H5file) - 1 && !OpalData::getInstance()->hasRestartFile()) {
            ERRORMSG("can't append to the file '" << fn << "' exiting!" << endl);
            exit(0);
        }
    }

    rc = H5SetStep(H5file, restartStep);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    int N = (int)H5PartGetNumParticles(H5file);

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    int numberOfParticlesPerNode = (int) floor((double) N / Ippl::getNodes());
    long long starti = Ippl::myNode() * numberOfParticlesPerNode;
    long long endi = starti + numberOfParticlesPerNode - 1;

    // In case we miss some particles we add them at the end on the last core
    if(Ippl::myNode() == (Ippl::getNodes() - 1)) {
        if(Ippl::getNodes()*numberOfParticlesPerNode < N)
            endi += (N - (Ippl::getNodes() * numberOfParticlesPerNode));
    }
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    rc = H5PartSetView(H5file, starti, endi);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    N = (int)H5PartGetNumParticles(H5file);
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    assert(N >= 0);
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    double actualT;
    rc = H5ReadStepAttribFloat64(H5file, "TIME", &actualT);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    beam.setT(actualT);
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    double dPhiGlobal;
    rc = H5ReadFileAttribFloat64(H5file, "dPhiGlobal", &dPhiGlobal);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    OpalData::getInstance()->setGlobalPhaseShift(dPhiGlobal);

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    h5_int64_t ltstep;
    rc = H5ReadStepAttribInt64(H5file, "LocalTrackStep", &ltstep);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    beam.setLocalTrackStep((long long)ltstep);

    h5_int64_t gtstep;
    rc = H5ReadStepAttribInt64(H5file, "GlobalTrackStep", &gtstep);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    beam.setGlobalTrackStep((long long)gtstep);
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    std::unique_ptr<char[]> varray(new char[(N)*sizeof(double)]);
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    h5_float64_t *farray = reinterpret_cast<h5_float64_t *>(varray.get());
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    h5_int64_t *larray = reinterpret_cast<h5_int64_t *>(varray.get());
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    beam.create(N);

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    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "x", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n) {
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        beam.R[n](0) = farray[n];
        beam.Bin[n] = 0; // not initialized
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    }
    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "y", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
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        beam.R[n](1) = farray[n];
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    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "z", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
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        beam.R[n](2) = farray[n];
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    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "px", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
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        beam.P[n](0) = farray[n];
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    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "py", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
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        beam.P[n](1) = farray[n];
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    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "pz", farray);
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    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
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        beam.P[n](2) = farray[n];
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    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "q", farray);
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    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
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        beam.Q[n] = farray[n];
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    rc = H5PartReadDataInt64(H5file, "lastsection", larray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
        beam.LastSection[n] = (short) larray[n];

    Ippl::Comm->barrier();
    rc = H5CloseFile(H5file);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
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    beam.boundp();

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    IpplTimings::stopTimer(beam.distrReload_m);

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    *gmsg << "Total number of particles in the h5 file = " << N << " NPerBunch= " << beam.getTotalNum()
          << " Global step " << gtstep << " Local step " << ltstep << endl
          << " restart step= " << restartStep << " time of restart = " << actualT
          << " phishift= " << OpalData::getInstance()->getGlobalPhaseShift() << endl;
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}

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void Distribution::DoRestartOpalCycl(PartBunch &beam, size_t Np, int restartStep, const int specifiedNumBunch) {
    h5_int64_t rc;
    IpplTimings::startTimer(beam.distrReload_m);
    *gmsg << "---------------- Start reading hdf5 file----------------" << endl;
    h5_file_t *H5file;

    std::string fn = OpalData::getInstance()->getInputBasename() + std::string(".h5");

#ifdef PARALLEL_IO
    H5file = H5OpenFile(fn.c_str(), H5_O_RDONLY, Ippl::getComm());
#else
    H5file = H5OpenFile(fn.c_str(), H5_O_RDONLY, 0);
#endif

    if(!H5file) {
        ERRORMSG("File open failed:  exiting!" << endl);
        exit(0);
    }

    if(restartStep == -1) {
        restartStep = H5GetNumSteps(H5file) - 1;
        OpalData::getInstance()->setRestartStep(restartStep);
    } else {
        if(restartStep != H5GetNumSteps(H5file) - 1 && !OpalData::getInstance()->hasRestartFile()) {
            ERRORMSG("can't append to the file '" << fn << "' exiting!" << endl);
            exit(0);
        }
    }

    *gmsg << "Restart from hdf5 format file " << fn << ", read phase space data of DumpStep " << (int)restartStep << endl;

    rc = H5SetStep(H5file, restartStep);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    const int globalN = (int)H5PartGetNumParticles(H5file);

    *gmsg << "total number of particles = " << globalN << endl;

    int numberOfParticlesPerNode = (int) floor((double) globalN / Ippl::getNodes());
    long long starti = Ippl::myNode() * numberOfParticlesPerNode;
    long long endi = 0;

    if(Ippl::myNode() == Ippl::getNodes() - 1)
        endi = -1;
    else
        endi = starti + numberOfParticlesPerNode;

    rc = H5PartSetView(H5file, starti, endi);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    const int localN = (int)H5PartGetNumParticles(H5file);
    assert(localN >= 0);

    h5_int64_t ltstep;
    rc = H5ReadStepAttribInt64(H5file, "LocalTrackStep", &ltstep);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    beam.setLocalTrackStep((long long)ltstep);

    h5_int64_t gtstep;
    rc = H5ReadStepAttribInt64(H5file, "GlobalTrackStep", &gtstep);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    beam.setGlobalTrackStep((long long)gtstep);

    char opalFlavour[128];
    rc = H5ReadStepAttribString(H5file, "OPAL_flavour", opalFlavour);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);

    std::unique_ptr<char[]> varray(new char[(localN)*sizeof(double)]);
    double *farray = reinterpret_cast<double *>(varray.get());
    h5_int64_t *larray = reinterpret_cast<h5_int64_t *>(varray.get());

    beam.create(localN);

    if(strcmp(opalFlavour, "opal-t") == 0) {
        *gmsg << "Restart from hdf5 file generated by OPAL-t" << endl;

        // force the initial time to zero
        beam.setT(0.0);
    beam.setLocalTrackStep((long long) 0 );
        rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "x", farray);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) localN; ++n)
            beam.R[n](0) = -farray[n];

        rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "y", farray);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) localN; ++n)
            beam.R[n](2) = farray[n];

        rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "z", farray);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) localN; ++n)
            beam.R[n](1) = farray[n];

        rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "px", farray);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) localN; ++n)
            beam.P[n](0) = -farray[n];

        rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "py", farray);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) localN; ++n)
            beam.P[n](2) = farray[n];

        rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "pz", farray);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) localN; ++n)
            beam.P[n](1) = farray[n];

        rc = H5PartReadDataInt64(H5file, "id", larray);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) localN; ++n)
            beam.ID[n] = larray[n];

    } else {
        *gmsg << "Restart from hdf5 file generated by OPAL-cycl" << endl;

        double actualT;
        rc = H5ReadStepAttribFloat64(H5file, "TIME", &actualT);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        beam.setT(actualT);

        h5_int64_t SteptoLastInj;
        rc = H5ReadStepAttribInt64(H5file, "SteptoLastInj", &SteptoLastInj);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        beam.setSteptoLastInj((int)SteptoLastInj);
        *gmsg << "Tracking Step since last bunch injection is " << SteptoLastInj << endl;

        h5_int64_t numBunch;
        rc = H5ReadStepAttribInt64(H5file, "NumBunch", &numBunch);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        beam.setNumBunch((int)numBunch);
        *gmsg << numBunch << " Bunches(bins) exist in this file" << endl;

        rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "x", farray);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) localN; ++n)
            beam.R[n](0) = farray[n];

        rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "y", farray);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) localN; ++n)
            beam.R[n](1) = farray[n];

        rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "z", farray);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) localN; ++n)
            beam.R[n](2) = farray[n];

        rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "px", farray);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) localN; ++n)
            beam.P[n](0) = farray[n];

        rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "py", farray);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) localN; ++n)
            beam.P[n](1) = farray[n];

        rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "pz", farray);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) localN; ++n)
            beam.P[n](2) = farray[n];

        rc = H5PartReadDataInt64(H5file, "id", larray);
        if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
            ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
        for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) localN; ++n)
            beam.ID[n] = larray[n];

        // only for multi-bunch mode
        if(specifiedNumBunch > 1) {
            // the allowed maximal bin number is set to 1000
            beam.setPBins(new PartBinsCyc(1000, numBunch));

        }

    }

    Ippl::Comm->barrier();
    rc = H5CloseFile(H5file);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    beam.boundp();
    beam.Q = beam.getChargePerParticle();

    if(strcmp(opalFlavour, "opal-t") == 0) {
        Vector_t meanR(0.0, 0.0, 0.0);
        Vector_t meanP(0.0, 0.0, 0.0);
        unsigned long int newLocalN = beam.getLocalNum();
        for(unsigned int i = 0; i < newLocalN; ++i) {
            for(int d = 0; d < 3; ++d) {
                meanR(d) += beam.R[i](d);
                meanP(d) += beam.P[i](d);
            }
        }
        reduce(meanR, meanR, OpAddAssign());
        meanR /= Vector_t(globalN);
        reduce(meanP, meanP, OpAddAssign());
        meanP /= Vector_t(globalN);
        *gmsg << "Rmean = " << meanR << "[m], Pmean=" << meanP << endl;

        for(unsigned int i = 0; i < newLocalN; ++i) {
            beam.R[i] -= meanR;
            beam.P[i] -= meanP;
        }
    }

    *gmsg << "----------------Finish reading hdf5 file----------------" << endl;
    IpplTimings::stopTimer(beam.distrReload_m);
}

void Distribution::DoRestartOpalE(EnvelopeBunch &beam, size_t Np, int restartStep) {
    h5_file_t *H5file;
    h5_int64_t rc;
    std::string fn;

    IpplTimings::startTimer(beam.distrReload_m);

    if(OpalData::getInstance()->hasRestartFile()) {
        fn = OpalData::getInstance()->getRestartFileName();
        *gmsg << "Restart from a specified file:" << fn << endl;

    } else {
        fn = OpalData::getInstance()->getInputBasename() + std::string(".h5");
    }

#ifdef PARALLEL_IO
    H5file = H5OpenFile(fn.c_str(), H5_O_RDONLY, Ippl::getComm());
#else
    H5file = H5PartOpenFile(fn.c_str(), H5_O_RDONLY, 0);
#endif

    if(!H5file) {
        ERRORMSG("could not open file '" << fn << "';  exiting!" << endl);
        exit(0);
    }

    if(restartStep == -1) {
        restartStep = H5GetNumSteps(H5file) - 1;
        OpalData::getInstance()->setRestartStep(restartStep);
    } else {
        if(restartStep != H5GetNumSteps(H5file) - 1 && !OpalData::getInstance()->hasRestartFile()) {
            ERRORMSG("can't append to the file '" << fn << "' exiting!" << endl);
            exit(0);
        }
    }

    rc = H5SetStep(H5file, restartStep);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    int N = (int)H5PartGetNumParticles(H5file);

    h5_int64_t totalSteps = H5GetNumSteps(H5file);
    *gmsg << "total number of slices = " << N << " total steps " << totalSteps << endl;

    beam.distributeSlices(N);
    beam.createBunch();
    long long starti = beam.mySliceStartOffset();
    long long endi = beam.mySliceEndOffset();

    rc = H5PartSetView(H5file, starti, endi);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    N = (int)H5PartGetNumParticles(H5file);
    assert(N >= 0 && (unsigned int) N != beam.numMySlices());

    double actualT;
    rc = H5ReadStepAttribFloat64(H5file, "TIME", &actualT);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);

    beam.setT(actualT);
    double dPhiGlobal;
    rc = H5ReadFileAttribFloat64(H5file, "dPhiGlobal", &dPhiGlobal);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    OpalData::getInstance()->setGlobalPhaseShift(dPhiGlobal);

    h5_int64_t ltstep;
    rc = H5ReadStepAttribInt64(H5file, "LocalTrackStep", &ltstep);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    beam.setLocalTrackStep((long long)ltstep);

    h5_int64_t gtstep;
    rc = H5ReadStepAttribInt64(H5file, "GlobalTrackStep", &gtstep);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    beam.setGlobalTrackStep((long long)gtstep);

    std::unique_ptr<char[]> varray(new char[(N)*sizeof(double)]);
    double *farray = reinterpret_cast<double *>(varray.get());
    h5_int64_t *larray = reinterpret_cast<h5_int64_t *>(varray.get());

    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "x", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n) {
        beam.setX(n, farray[n]);
    }
    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "y", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
        beam.setY(n, farray[n]);

    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "z", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
        beam.setZ(n, farray[n]);

    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "px", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
        beam.setPx(n, farray[n]);

    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "py", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
        beam.setPy(n, farray[n]);

    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "beta", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
        beam.setBeta(n, farray[n]);

    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "X0", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
        beam.setX0(n, farray[n]);

    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "pX0", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
        beam.setPx0(n, farray[n]);

    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "Y0", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
        beam.setY0(n, farray[n]);

    rc = H5PartReadDataFloat64(H5file, "pY0", farray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
        beam.setPy0(n, farray[n]);

    rc = H5PartReadDataInt64(H5file, "lastsection", larray);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    for(unsigned long int n = 0; n < (unsigned int) N; ++n)
        beam.LastSection[n] = (short) larray[n];

    Ippl::Comm->barrier();
    rc = H5CloseFile(H5file);
    if(rc != H5_SUCCESS)
        ERRORMSG("H5 rc= " << rc << " in " << __FILE__ << " @ line " << __LINE__ << endl);
    beam.setCharge(beam.getChargePerParticle());
    IpplTimings::stopTimer(beam.distrReload_m);
}

Distribution *Distribution::find(const std::string &name) {
    Distribution *dist = dynamic_cast<Distribution *>(OpalData::getInstance()->find(name));

    if(dist == 0) {
        throw OpalException("Distribution::find()", "Distribution \"" + name + "\" not found.");
    }

    return dist;
}

double Distribution::GetTEmission() {
    if(tEmission_m > 0.0) {
        return tEmission_m;
    }

    distT_m = Attributes::getString(itsAttr[AttributesT::DISTRIBUTION]);
    if(distT_m == "GAUSS")
        distrTypeT_m = DistrTypeT::GAUSS;
    else if(distT_m == "GUNGAUSSFLATTOPTH")
        distrTypeT_m = DistrTypeT::GUNGAUSSFLATTOPTH;
    else if(distT_m == "FROMFILE")
        distrTypeT_m = DistrTypeT::FROMFILE;
    else if(distT_m == "BINOMIAL")
        distrTypeT_m = DistrTypeT::BINOMIAL;

    tPulseLengthFWHM_m = Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::TPULSEFWHM]);
    cutoff_m = Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::SIZE + LegacyAttributesT::CUTOFF]);
    tRise_m = Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::TRISE]);
    tFall_m = Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::TFALL]);
    double tratio = sqrt(2.0 * log(10.0)) - sqrt(2.0 * log(10.0 / 9.0));
    sigmaRise_m = tRise_m / tratio;
    sigmaFall_m = tFall_m / tratio;

    switch(distrTypeT_m) {
        case DistrTypeT::ASTRAFLATTOPTH: {
            double a = tPulseLengthFWHM_m / 2;
            double sig = tRise_m / 2;
            double inv_erf08 = 0.906193802436823; // erfinv(0.8)
            double sqr2 = sqrt(2.);
            double t = a - sqr2 * sig * inv_erf08;
            double tmps = sig;
            double tmpt = t;
            for(int i = 0; i < 10; ++ i) {
                sig = (t + tRise_m - a) / (sqr2 * inv_erf08);
                t = a - 0.5 * sqr2 * (sig + tmps) * inv_erf08;
                sig = (0.5 * (t + tmpt) + tRise_m - a) / (sqr2 * inv_erf08);
                tmps = sig;
                tmpt = t;
            }
            tEmission_m = tPulseLengthFWHM_m + 10 * sig;
            break;
        }
        case DistrTypeT::GUNGAUSSFLATTOPTH: {
            tEmission_m = tPulseLengthFWHM_m + (cutoff_m - sqrt(2.0 * log(2.0))) * (sigmaRise_m + sigmaFall_m);
            break;
        }
        default:
            tEmission_m = 0.0;
    }
    return tEmission_m;
}

double Distribution::GetEkin() const {return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::EKIN]);}
double Distribution::GetLaserEnergy() const {return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::ELASER]);}
double Distribution::GetWorkFunctionRf() const {return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::W]);}

size_t Distribution::GetNumberOfDarkCurrentParticles() { return (size_t) Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::NPDARKCUR]);}
double Distribution::GetDarkCurrentParticlesInwardMargin() { return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::INWARDMARGIN]);}
double Distribution::GetEInitThreshold() { return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::EINITHR]);}
double Distribution::GetWorkFunction() { return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::FNPHIW]); }
double Distribution::GetFieldEnhancement() { return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::FNBETA]); }
size_t Distribution::GetMaxFNemissionPartPerTri() { return (size_t) Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::FNMAXEMI]);}
double Distribution::GetFieldFNThreshold() { return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::FNFIELDTHR]);}
double Distribution::GetFNParameterA() { return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::FNA]);}
double Distribution::GetFNParameterB() { return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::FNB]);}
double Distribution::GetFNParameterY() { return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::FNY]);}
double Distribution::GetFNParameterVYZero() { return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::FNVYZERO]);}
double Distribution::GetFNParameterVYSecond() { return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::FNVYSECOND]);}
int    Distribution::GetSecondaryEmissionFlag() { return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::SECONDARYFLAG]);}
bool   Distribution::GetEmissionMode() { return Attributes::getBool(itsAttr[AttributesT::NEMISSIONMODE]);}

std::string Distribution::GetTypeofDistribution() { return (std::string) Attributes::getString(itsAttr[AttributesT::DISTRIBUTION]);}

double Distribution::GetvSeyZero() {return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::VSEYZERO]);}// return sey_0 in Vaughan's model
double Distribution::GetvEZero() {return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::VEZERO]);}// return the energy related to sey_0 in Vaughan's model
double Distribution::GetvSeyMax() {return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::VSEYMAX]);}// return sey max in Vaughan's model
double Distribution::GetvEmax() {return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::VEMAX]);}// return Emax in Vaughan's model
double Distribution::GetvKenergy() {return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::VKENERGY]);}// return fitting parameter denotes the roughness of surface for impact energy in Vaughan's model
double Distribution::GetvKtheta() {return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::VKTHETA]);}// return fitting parameter denotes the roughness of surface for impact angle in Vaughan's model
double Distribution::GetvVThermal() {return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::VVTHERMAL]);}// thermal velocity of Maxwellian distribution of secondaries in Vaughan's model
double Distribution::GetVw() {return Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::VW]);}// velocity scalar for parallel plate benchmark;

int Distribution::GetSurfMaterial() {return (int)Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::SURFMATERIAL]);}// Surface material number for Furman-Pivi's Model;

Inform &Distribution::printInfo(Inform &os) const {

    os << "********************** DISTRIBUTION **********************" << endl;
    os << endl;
    if (OpalData::getInstance()->inRestartRun()) {
        os << "In restart. Distribution read in from .h5 file." << endl;
    } else {
        if (addedDistributions_m.size() > 0)
            os << "Main Distribution" << endl
            << "-----------------" << endl;

        if (particlesPerDist_m.empty())
            PrintDist(os, 0);
        else
            PrintDist(os, particlesPerDist_m.at(0));

        size_t distCount = 1;
        for (unsigned distIndex = 0; distIndex < addedDistributions_m.size(); distIndex++) {
            os << endl;
            os << "Added Distribution #" << distCount << endl;
            os << "----------------------" << endl;
            addedDistributions_m.at(distIndex)->PrintDist(os, particlesPerDist_m.at(distCount));
            distCount++;
        }

        os << endl;
        if (numberOfEnergyBins_m > 0) {
            os << "Number of energy bins    = " << numberOfEnergyBins_m << endl;

            if (numberOfEnergyBins_m > 1)
                PrintEnergyBins(os);
        }

        if (emitting_m) {
            os << "Distribution is emitted. " << endl;
            os << "Emission time            = " << tEmission_m << " [sec]" << endl;
            os << "Bin delta t              = " << tBin_m << " [sec]" << endl;
            os << endl;
            PrintEmissionModel(os);
            os << endl;
        } else
            os << "Distribution is injected." << endl;
    }
    os << endl;
    os << "**********************************************************" << endl;

    return os;
}

const PartData &Distribution::GetReference() const {
    // Cast away const, to allow logically constant Distribution to update.
    const_cast<Distribution *>(this)->update();
    return particleRefData_m;
}

void Distribution::AddDistributions() {
    /*
     * Move particle coordinates from added distributions to main distribution.
     */
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    std::vector<Distribution *>::iterator addedDistIt;
    for (addedDistIt = addedDistributions_m.begin();
         addedDistIt != addedDistributions_m.end(); addedDistIt++) {

        std::vector<double>::iterator distIt;
        for (distIt = (*addedDistIt)->GetXDist().begin();
             distIt != (*addedDistIt)->GetXDist().end();
             distIt++) {
            xDist_m.push_back(*distIt);
        }
        (*addedDistIt)->EraseXDist();

        for (distIt = (*addedDistIt)->GetBGxDist().begin();
             distIt != (*addedDistIt)->GetBGxDist().end();
             distIt++) {
            pxDist_m.push_back(*distIt);
        }
        (*addedDistIt)->EraseBGxDist();

        for (distIt = (*addedDistIt)->GetYDist().begin();
             distIt != (*addedDistIt)->GetYDist().end();
             distIt++) {
            yDist_m.push_back(*distIt);
        }
        (*addedDistIt)->EraseYDist();

        for (distIt = (*addedDistIt)->GetBGyDist().begin();
             distIt != (*addedDistIt)->GetBGyDist().end();
             distIt++) {
            pyDist_m.push_back(*distIt);
        }
        (*addedDistIt)->EraseBGyDist();

        for (distIt = (*addedDistIt)->GetTOrZDist().begin();
             distIt != (*addedDistIt)->GetTOrZDist().end();
             distIt++) {
            tOrZDist_m.push_back(*distIt);
        }
        (*addedDistIt)->EraseTOrZDist();

        for (distIt = (*addedDistIt)->GetBGzDist().begin();
             distIt != (*addedDistIt)->GetBGzDist().end();
             distIt++) {
            pzDist_m.push_back(*distIt);
        }
        (*addedDistIt)->EraseBGzDist();
    }
}

void Distribution::ApplyEmissionModel(double eZ, double &px, double &py, double &pz) {

    switch (emissionModel_m) {

    case EmissionModelT::NONE:
        ApplyEmissModelNone(pz);
        break;
    case EmissionModelT::ASTRA:
        ApplyEmissModelAstra(px, py, pz);
        break;
    case EmissionModelT::NONEQUIL:
        ApplyEmissModelNonEquil(eZ, px, py, pz);
        break;
    default:
        break;
    }
}

void Distribution::ApplyEmissModelAstra(double &px, double &py, double &pz) {

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    double phi = 2.0 * acos(sqrt(gsl_rng_uniform(randGenEmit_m)));
    double theta = 2.0 * Physics::pi * gsl_rng_uniform(randGenEmit_m);
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    px = pTotThermal_m * sin(phi) * cos(theta);
    py = pTotThermal_m * sin(phi) * sin(theta);
    pz = pTotThermal_m * std::abs(cos(phi));

}

void Distribution::ApplyEmissModelNone(double &pz) {
    pz += pTotThermal_m;
}

void Distribution::ApplyEmissModelNonEquil(double eZ,
                                           double &bgx,
                                           double &bgy,
                                           double &bgz) {

    double phiEffective = cathodeWorkFunc_m
                          - sqrt(Physics::q_e * eZ /
                                 (4.0 * Physics::pi * Physics::epsilon_0));
    double lowEnergyLimit = cathodeFermiEnergy_m + phiEffective - laserEnergy_m;

    // Generate emission energy.
    double energy = 0.0;
    bool allow = false;
    while (!allow) {
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        energy = lowEnergyLimit + (gsl_rng_uniform(randGenEmit_m)*emitEnergyUpperLimit_m);
        double randFuncValue = gsl_rng_uniform(randGenEmit_m);
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        double funcValue = (1.0
                            - 1.0
                            / (1.0
                               + exp((energy + laserEnergy_m - cathodeFermiEnergy_m)
                                     / (Physics::kB * cathodeTemp_m))))
                            / (1.0
                               + exp((energy - cathodeFermiEnergy_m)
                                     / (Physics::kB * cathodeTemp_m)));
        if (randFuncValue <= funcValue)
            allow = true;
    }

    // Compute emission angles.
    double energyInternal = energy + laserEnergy_m;
    double energyExternal = energy + laserEnergy_m
                            - cathodeFermiEnergy_m - phiEffective;

    double thetaInMax = acos(sqrt((cathodeFermiEnergy_m + phiEffective)
                                  / (energy + laserEnergy_m)));
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    double thetaIn = gsl_rng_uniform(randGenEmit_m)*thetaInMax;
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    double sinThetaOut = sin(thetaIn) * sqrt(energyInternal / energyExternal);
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    double phi = Physics::two_pi * gsl_rng_uniform(randGenEmit_m);
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    // Compute emission momenta.
    double betaGammaExternal
           = sqrt(pow(energyExternal / (Physics::m_e * 1.0e9) + 1.0, 2.0) - 1.0);

    bgx = betaGammaExternal * sinThetaOut * cos(phi);
    bgy = betaGammaExternal * sinThetaOut * sin(phi);
    bgz = betaGammaExternal * sqrt(1.0 - pow(sinThetaOut, 2.0));

}

void Distribution::CalcPartPerDist(size_t numberOfParticles) {

    double totalWeight = GetWeight();
    size_t numberOfDistributions = 1;
    std::vector<Distribution *>::iterator distributionIt;
    for (distributionIt = addedDistributions_m.begin();
         distributionIt != addedDistributions_m.end(); distributionIt++) {
        totalWeight += (*distributionIt)->GetWeight();
        numberOfDistributions++;
    }

    if (numberOfDistributions == 1)
        particlesPerDist_m.push_back(numberOfParticles);
    else {

        particlesPerDist_m.push_back(0);
        size_t numberOfCommittedPart = 0;
        for (distributionIt = addedDistributions_m.begin();
             distributionIt != addedDistributions_m.end(); distributionIt++) {
            particlesPerDist_m.push_back(numberOfParticles
                                        * (*distributionIt)->GetWeight()
                                       / totalWeight);
            numberOfCommittedPart += particlesPerDist_m.back();
        }

        // Remaining particles go into main distribution.
        particlesPerDist_m.at(0) = numberOfParticles - numberOfCommittedPart;

    }

}

void Distribution::CheckEmissionParameters() {

    // There must be at least on energy bin for an emitted beam.
    numberOfEnergyBins_m
        = std::abs(static_cast<int> (Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::NBIN])));
    if (numberOfEnergyBins_m == 0)
        numberOfEnergyBins_m = 1;

    int emissionSteps = std::abs(static_cast<int> (Attributes::getReal(itsAttr[AttributesT::EMISSIONSTEPS])));

    // There must be at least one emission step.
    if (emissionSteps == 0)
        emissionSteps = 1;

    // Set number of sample bins per energy bin from the number of emission steps.
    numberOfSampleBins_m = static_cast<int> (std::ceil(emissionSteps / numberOfEnergyBins_m));
    if (numberOfSampleBins_m <= 0)
        numberOfSampleBins_m = 1;

    // Initialize emission counters.
    currentEnergyBin_m = 1;
    currentSampleBin_m = 0;

}

void Distribution::CheckIfEmitted() {

    emitting_m = Attributes::getBool(itsAttr[AttributesT::EMITTED]);

    switch (distrTypeT_m) {

    case DistrTypeT::ASTRAFLATTOPTH:
        emitting_m = true;
        break;
    case DistrTypeT::GUNGAUSSFLATTOPTH:
        emitting_m = true;
        break;
    default:
        break;
    }
}

void Distribution::CheckParticleNumber(size_t &numberOfParticles) {

    size_t numberOfDistParticles = tOrZDist_m.size();
    reduce(numberOfDistParticles, numberOfDistParticles, OpAddAssign());
    if (numberOfDistParticles != numberOfParticles) {
        *gmsg << "\n--------------------------------------------------" << endl
              << "Warning!! The number of particles in the initial" << endl
              << "distribution is " << numberOfDistParticles << "." << endl << endl
              << "This is different from the number of particles" << endl
              << "defined by the BEAM command: " << numberOfParticles << endl << endl
              << "This is often happens when using a FROMFILE type" << endl
              << "distribution and not matching the number of" << endl
              << "particles in the particles file(s) with the number" << endl
              << "given in the BEAM command." << endl << endl
              << "The number of particles in the initial distribution" << endl
              << "(" << numberOfDistParticles << ") "
              << "will take precedence." << endl
              << "---------------------------------------------------\n" << endl;
    }
    numberOfParticles = numberOfDistParticles;
}

void Distribution::ChooseInputMomentumUnits(InputMomentumUnitsT::InputMomentumUnitsT inputMoUnits) {

    /*
     * Toggle what units to use for inputing momentum.
     */
    std::string inputUnits = Attributes::getString(itsAttr[AttributesT::INPUTMOUNITS]);
    if (inputUnits == "NONE")
        inputMoUnits_m = InputMomentumUnitsT::NONE;
    else if (inputUnits == "EV")
        inputMoUnits_m = InputMomentumUnitsT::EV;
    else
        inputMoUnits_m = inputMoUnits;

}

double Distribution::ConvertBetaGammaToeV(double valueInBetaGamma, double massIneV) {
    return (sqrt(pow(valueInBetaGamma, 2.0) + 1.0) - 1.0) * massIneV;
}

double Distribution::ConverteVToBetaGamma(double valueIneV, double massIneV) {