### replace centim

parent cc03c154
 ... ... @@ -351,7 +351,7 @@ Bend: RBend, ANGLE = 30.0 * Pi / 180.0, \end{verbatim} This is a definition of a simple \texttt{RBEND} that bends the beam in a positive direction 30 degrees (towards the negative x axis as if Figure~\ref{rbend}). It has a design energy of {10}{MeV}, a length of {0.5}{m}, a vertical gap of {2}{\centim} and a {0}{$^{\circ}$} entrance edge angle. (Therefore the exit edge angle is {30}{$^{\circ}$}.) We are vertical gap of {2}cm and a {0}{$^{\circ}$} entrance edge angle. (Therefore the exit edge angle is {30}{$^{\circ}$}.) We are using the default, internal field map 1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT'' see~Section~\ref{benddefaultfieldmapopalt} which describes the magnet fringe fields see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}. When \textit{OPAL} is run, you will get the following output (assuming an electron beam) for this \texttt{RBEND} definition: ... ... @@ -928,7 +928,7 @@ The default field map is the equivalent of the following custom \texttt{1DProfil -1.082657 0.318111 \end{verbatim} As one can see, the default magnet gap for \texttt{1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT'}'' is set to {2.0}{\centim}. This value As one can see, the default magnet gap for \texttt{1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT'}'' is set to {2.0}cm. This value can be overridden by the \texttt{GAP} attribute of the magnet (see Section~\ref{RBend,SBend}). \clearpage ... ... @@ -1640,8 +1640,8 @@ Figure~\ref{FINSB-RAC-field} using \end{equation*} where d is the cell length and is defined as $\text{d} = \lambda \cdot \text{\texttt{MODE}}$. MODE is an attribute of the element (see below). When calculating the field from the map ($\mathbf{E_{from-map}}(x,y,z)$), the longitudinal position is referenced to the start of the cavity fields at $\frac{\lambda}{2}$ (In this case starting at $z = {5.0}{\centim}$). If the longitudinal position advances past the end of the cavity map ($\frac{3\lambda}{2} = {15.0}{\centim}$ in this example), an integer number of cavity wavelengths is subtracted from the position until it is back at $\frac{\lambda}{2}$ (In this case starting at $z = {5.0}cm$). If the longitudinal position advances past the end of the cavity map ($\frac{3\lambda}{2} = {15.0}cm$ in this example), an integer number of cavity wavelengths is subtracted from the position until it is back within the map's longitudinal range. A \texttt{TRAVELINGWAVE} structure has seven real attributes, one integer attribute, one string attribute and one Boolean attribute: ... ... @@ -1696,7 +1696,7 @@ lrf0: TravelingWave, L=0.0253, VOLT=14.750, \section{Monitor} \label{sec:monitor} \index{MONITOR} A \texttt{MONITOR} detects all particles passing it and writes the position, the momentum and the time when they hit it into an H5hut file. Furthermore the exact position of the monitor is stored. It has always a length of {1}{\centim} consisting of {0.5}{\centim} drift, the monitor of zero length and another {0.5}{\centim} drift. This is to prevent \textit{OPAL-t} from missing any particle. The positions of the particles on the monitor are interpolated from the current position and momentum one step before they would passe the monitor. A \texttt{MONITOR} detects all particles passing it and writes the position, the momentum and the time when they hit it into an H5hut file. Furthermore the exact position of the monitor is stored. It has always a length of {1}cm consisting of {0.5}cm drift, the monitor of zero length and another {0.5}cm drift. This is to prevent \textit{OPAL-t} from missing any particle. The positions of the particles on the monitor are interpolated from the current position and momentum one step before they would passe the monitor. \begin{description} \item[OUTFN] The file name into which the monitor should write the collected data. The file is an H5hut file. ... ... @@ -1996,7 +1996,7 @@ Major axis of the transverse elliptical shape, default value is 1e6. \item[YSIZE] Minor axis of the transverse elliptical shape, default value is 1e6. \end{description} \noindent Example: Graphite degrader of {15}{\centim} thickness. \noindent Example: Graphite degrader of {15}cm thickness. \begin{verbatim} DEGPHYS: PARTICLEMATTERINTERACTION, TYPE="DEGRADER", MATERIAL="Graphite"; ... ...
 ... ... @@ -311,11 +311,11 @@ structure of unknown origin, but presumably due to errors in the Superfish~\ref{ \end{verbatim} \end{fmpage} \caption[Example of a 1DMagnetoStatic field map]{A 1D field map describing a magnetostatic field using 10000 grid points (9999 grid spacings) in the longitudinal direction. The field is non-negligible from {-60.0}{\centim} to {+60.0}{\centim} (9999 grid spacings) in the longitudinal direction. The field is non-negligible from {-60.0}cm to {+60.0}cm relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE} in the longitudinal direction. From the 10000 field values, 5000 complex Fourier coefficients are calculated. However, only 40 are kept when calculating field values during a simulation. \textit{OPAL-t} normalizes the field values internally such that $\max(|B_{\text{on axis}}|) = {1.0}{T}$. If the \texttt{FAST} attribute is set to true in the input deck, a 2D field map is generated internally with 200 values in the radial direction, from {0}{\centim} to {2}{\centim}, for each deck, a 2D field map is generated internally with 200 values in the radial direction, from {0}cm to {2}cm, for each longitudinal grid point.} \label{fig:1DMagnetoStatic} \end{figure} ... ... @@ -450,12 +450,12 @@ Figure~\ref{AstraMagnetoStatic} gives an example of an \texttt{AstraMagnetoStati \end{verbatim} \end{fmpage} \caption[Example of a 1DDynamic field map]{A 1D field map describing a dynamic field using 5000 grid points (4999 grid spacings) in the longitudinal direction. The field is non-negligible from {-3.0}{\centim} to {57.0}{\centim} relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE} spacings) in the longitudinal direction. The field is non-negligible from {-3.0}cm to {57.0}cm relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE} in the longitudinal direction. The field frequency is {1498.953425154}{MHz}. From the 5000 field values, 2500 complex Fourier coefficients are calculated. However, only 40 are kept when calculating field values during the simulation. \textit{OPAL-t} normalizes the field values internally such that $max(|E_{on axis}|) = {1}{MV/m}$. If the \texttt{FAST} switch is set to true in the input deck, a 2D field map is generated internally with 200 values in the radial direction, from {0.0}{\centim} to {2.0}{\centim}, for each longitudinal grid point.} in the input deck, a 2D field map is generated internally with 200 values in the radial direction, from {0.0}cm to {2.0}cm, for each longitudinal grid point.} \label{fig:1DDynamic} \end{figure} ... ... @@ -848,10 +848,10 @@ Figure~\ref{1DProfile1Type1} shows an example of a \texttt{1DProfile1 Type 1} fi \end{fmpage} \caption[Example of a 1DProfile1 Type 1 field map]{A 1D field map describing the fringe field of an element using 7 Enge coefficients for the entrance fringe field and 8 Enge coefficients for the exit fringe field (polynomial order 6 and 7 respectively). The element has a gap height of {3.0}{\centim}, and a length of {30.0}{\centim}. The entrance fringe field is non-negligible from {4.0}{\centim} in front of the magnet's entrance edge and reaches the core strength at {4.0}{\centim} behind the entrance edge of the magnet. (The entrance edge position is given by the element's \texttt{ELEMEDGE} attribute.) The exit fringe field region begins {4.0}{\centim} in front of the exit edge of the magnet and is non-negligible {4.0}{\centim} after the exit edge of the magnet. The value 1000 at the end of line 2 and 0 at the end of line 3 do not have any meaning.} order 6 and 7 respectively). The element has a gap height of {3.0}cm, and a length of {30.0}cm. The entrance fringe field is non-negligible from {4.0}cm in front of the magnet's entrance edge and reaches the core strength at {4.0}cm behind the entrance edge of the magnet. (The entrance edge position is given by the element's \texttt{ELEMEDGE} attribute.) The exit fringe field region begins {4.0}cm in front of the exit edge of the magnet and is non-negligible {4.0}cm after the exit edge of the magnet. The value 1000 at the end of line 2 and 0 at the end of line 3 do not have any meaning.} \label{fig:1DProfile1Type1} \end{figure} ... ... @@ -911,7 +911,7 @@ Figure~\ref{1DProfile1Type2} shows an example of a \texttt{1DProfile1 Type 2} fi 2.18598e-05 \end{verbatim} \end{fmpage} \caption[Example of a 1DProfile1 Type 2 field map]{A 1D field map describing the fringe field of an element using 7 Enge coefficients for the entrance fringe field and 8 Enge coefficients for the exit fringe field (polynomial order 6 and 7 respectively). The element has a gap height of {3.0}{\centim}. The entrance fringe field is non-negligible from {4.0}{\centim} in front of the magnet's entrance edge and reaches the core strength at {4.0}{\centim} behind the entrance edge of the magnet. The exit fringe field region begins {4.0}{\centim} in front of the exit edge of the magnet and is non-negligible {4.0}{\centim} after the exit edge of the magnet. The value 0 at the end of line 2 and 0 at the end of line 3 do not have any meaning. The entrance Enge function origin is {2.0}{\centim} in front (upstream) of the magnet's entrance edge. The exit Enge function origin is {2.0}{\centim} behind (downstream of) the exit edge of the magnet.} \caption[Example of a 1DProfile1 Type 2 field map]{A 1D field map describing the fringe field of an element using 7 Enge coefficients for the entrance fringe field and 8 Enge coefficients for the exit fringe field (polynomial order 6 and 7 respectively). The element has a gap height of {3.0}cm. The entrance fringe field is non-negligible from {4.0}cm in front of the magnet's entrance edge and reaches the core strength at {4.0}cm behind the entrance edge of the magnet. The exit fringe field region begins {4.0}cm in front of the exit edge of the magnet and is non-negligible {4.0}cm after the exit edge of the magnet. The value 0 at the end of line 2 and 0 at the end of line 3 do not have any meaning. The entrance Enge function origin is {2.0}cm in front (upstream) of the magnet's entrance edge. The exit Enge function origin is {2.0}cm behind (downstream of) the exit edge of the magnet.} \label{fig:1DProfile1Type2} \end{figure} ... ... @@ -939,8 +939,8 @@ Figure~\ref{1DProfile1Type2} shows an example of a \texttt{1DProfile1 Type 2} fi \end{fmpage} \caption[Example of a 2DElectroStatic field map]{A 2D field map describing an electrostatic field using 5000 grid points in the longitudinal direction times 200 grid points in the radial direction. The field between the grid points is calculated using bi-linear interpolation. The field is non-negligible from {-3.0}{\centim} to {51.0}{\centim} relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE} and the 200 grid points in the radial direction span the distance from {0.0}{\centim} to {2.0}{\centim}. The field values are ordered in XZ using bi-linear interpolation. The field is non-negligible from {-3.0}cm to {51.0}cm relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE} and the 200 grid points in the radial direction span the distance from {0.0}cm to {2.0}cm. The field values are ordered in XZ orientation, so the index in the longitudinal direction changes fastest and therefore $E_z$ values are stored in the first column and $E_r$ values in the second see~Section~\ref{fieldorientation}. \textit{OPAL-t} normalizes the field so that $max(|E_{z, \text{ on axis}}|) = {1}{MVm^{-1}}$.} \label{fig:2DElectroStatic} ... ... @@ -1011,8 +1011,8 @@ Figure~\ref{2DElectroStatic} gives an example of a \texttt{2DElectroStatic} fiel \end{fmpage} \caption[Example of a 2DMagnetoStatic field map]{A 2D field map describing a magnetostatic field using 5000 grid points in the longitudinal direction times 200 grid points in the radial direction. The field between the grid points is calculated using bi-linear interpolation. The field is non-negligible from {-3.0}{\centim} to {51.0}{\centim} relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE} and the 200 grid points in the radial direction span the distance from {0.0}{\centim} to {2.0}{\centim}. The field values are ordered in the ZX using bi-linear interpolation. The field is non-negligible from {-3.0}cm to {51.0}cm relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE} and the 200 grid points in the radial direction span the distance from {0.0}cm to {2.0}cm. The field values are ordered in the ZX orientation, so the index in the radial direction changes fastest and therefore $B_r$ values are stored in the first column and $B_z$ values in the second see~Section~\ref{fieldorientation}. \textit{OPAL-t} normalizes the field so that $max(|B_{z,\text{ on axis}}|) = {1}{T}$.} \label{fig:2DMagnetoStatic} ... ... @@ -1085,8 +1085,8 @@ Figure~\ref{2DMagnetoStatic} gives an example of a \texttt{2DMagnetoStatic} fiel \caption[Example of a 2DDynamic field map]{A 2D field map describing a dynamic field oscillating with a frequency of {1498.953425154}{MHz}. The field map provides 4122 grid points in the longitudinal direction times 76 grid points in radial direction. The field between the grid points is calculated with a bi-linear interpolation. The field is non-negligible between {-3.0}{\centim} and {51.0}{\centim} relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE} and the 76 grid points in radial direction span the distance from {0.0}{\centim} to {1.0}{\centim}. The field values are ordered in the XZ orientation, so the index in the non-negligible between {-3.0}cm and {51.0}cm relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE} and the 76 grid points in radial direction span the distance from {0.0}cm to {1.0}cm. The field values are ordered in the XZ orientation, so the index in the longitudinal direction changes fastest and therefore $E_z$ values are stored in the first column and $E_r$ values in the second. The third column contains the electric field magnitude, $|E|$, and is not used (but must still be included). The fourth column is $H_{\phi}$ in A/m. The third and fourth columns are always the same and do not depend on the field ... ... @@ -1160,9 +1160,9 @@ Figure~\ref{2DDynamic} gives an example of a \texttt{2DDynamic} field file. \end{fmpage} \caption[Example of a 3DMagnetoStatic field map]{A 3D field map describing a magnetostatic field. The field map provides 4122 grid points in z-direction times 228 grid points in x-direction and 152 grid points in y-direction. The field between the grid points is calculated with a tri-linear interpolation. The field is non-negligible between {-3.0}{\centim} to {51.0}{\centim} relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE}, the 228 grid points in x-direction range from {-1.5}{\centim} to {1.5}{\centim} and the 152 grid points in y-direction range from {-1.0}{\centim} to {1.0}{\centim} relative to the design path. The field values are ordered such that the index in z-direction changes fastest, then the index in y-direction while the index in x-direction changes The field between the grid points is calculated with a tri-linear interpolation. The field is non-negligible between {-3.0}cm to {51.0}cm relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE}, the 228 grid points in x-direction range from {-1.5}cm to {1.5}cm and the 152 grid points in y-direction range from {-1.0}cm to {1.0}cm relative to the design path. The field values are ordered such that the index in z-direction changes fastest, then the index in y-direction while the index in x-direction changes slowest. The columns correspond to $B_x$, $B_y$ and $B_z$.} \label{fig:3DMagnetoStatic} \end{figure} ... ... @@ -1225,7 +1225,7 @@ Figure~\ref{3DMagnetoStatic} gives an example of a \texttt{3DMagnetoStatic} fiel -8.10970000e-05 \end{verbatim} \end{fmpage} \caption[Example of a 3DMagnetoStatic\_Extended field map]{A 3D field map describing a magnetostatic field on the mid-plane. The field map provides 466 grid points in z-direction times 134 grid points in x-direction. The field is non-negligible between {-22.425}{\centim} to {47.425}{\centim} relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE}, the 134 grid points in x-direction range from {-9.9254}{\centim} to {9.9254}{\centim}. The field should be integrated using Maxwell's equations from the mid-plane to {2.0}{\centim} using 16 grid points. The mid-plane is regarded as a perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) i.e. the magnetic field on the mid-plane has no tangential component. This leads to a symmetry where the perpendicular component is mirrored whereas the tangential component is anti-parallel. Instead of integrating the field from the mid-plane to {-2.0}{\centim} and {1.0}{\centim} we only integrate it to {+2.0}{\centim} and store only the upper half of the field map. For positions $R(x,\;-y,\;z)$ with $y > 0.0$ the correct field can then be derived from the $R(x,\;y,\;z)$.} \caption[Example of a 3DMagnetoStatic\_Extended field map]{A 3D field map describing a magnetostatic field on the mid-plane. The field map provides 466 grid points in z-direction times 134 grid points in x-direction. The field is non-negligible between {-22.425}cm to {47.425}cm relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE}, the 134 grid points in x-direction range from {-9.9254}cm to {9.9254}cm. The field should be integrated using Maxwell's equations from the mid-plane to {2.0}cm using 16 grid points. The mid-plane is regarded as a perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) i.e. the magnetic field on the mid-plane has no tangential component. This leads to a symmetry where the perpendicular component is mirrored whereas the tangential component is anti-parallel. Instead of integrating the field from the mid-plane to {-2.0}cm and {1.0}cm we only integrate it to {+2.0}cm and store only the upper half of the field map. For positions $R(x,\;-y,\;z)$ with $y > 0.0$ the correct field can then be derived from the $R(x,\;y,\;z)$.} \label{fig:3DMagnetoStatic_Extended} \end{figure} ... ... @@ -1289,9 +1289,9 @@ Figure~\ref{3DMagnetoStatic_Extended} gives an example of a \texttt{3DMagnetoSta \end{fmpage} \caption[Example of a 3DDynamic field map]{A 3D field map describing a dynamic field oscillating with {1.4989534}{\gigaHz}. The field map provides 4122 grid points in z-direction times 228 grid points in x-direction and 152 grid points in y-direction. The field between the grid points is calculated with a tri-linear interpolation. The field is non-negligible between {-3.0}{\centim} to {51.0}{\centim} relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE}, the 228 grid points in x-direction range from {-1.5}{\centim} to {1.5}{\centim} and the 152 grid points in y-direction range from {-1.0}{\centim} to {1.0}{\centim} relative to the design path. The field values are ordered such that the index in z-direction changes fastest, then the index in y-direction while the index in x-direction changes The field between the grid points is calculated with a tri-linear interpolation. The field is non-negligible between {-3.0}cm to {51.0}cm relative to \texttt{ELEMEDGE}, the 228 grid points in x-direction range from {-1.5}cm to {1.5}cm and the 152 grid points in y-direction range from {-1.0}cm to {1.0}cm relative to the design path. The field values are ordered such that the index in z-direction changes fastest, then the index in y-direction while the index in x-direction changes slowest. The columns correspond to $E_x$, $E_y$, $E_z$, $H_x$, $H_y$ and $H_z$. \textit{OPAL-t} normalizes the field so that $max(|E_{z,\text{ on axis}}|) = {1}{MVm^{-1}}$.} \label{fig:3DDynamic} \end{figure} ... ...
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