Commit ef1359c5 authored by snuverink_j's avatar snuverink_j
Browse files

replace latex quotes with normal quotes

parent d30dc126
...@@ -704,7 +704,7 @@ Figure~\ref{plot-fringe-size,plot-fringe-size-zoom} examine the effects of the f ...@@ -704,7 +704,7 @@ Figure~\ref{plot-fringe-size,plot-fringe-size-zoom} examine the effects of the f
\item \begin{verbatim} \item \begin{verbatim}
bend1: SBEND, ANGLE = bend_angle, bend1: SBEND, ANGLE = bend_angle,
E1 = 0, E2 = 0, E1 = 0, E2 = 0,
FMAPFN = ``1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT'', FMAPFN = "1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT",
ELEMEDGE = drift_before_bend, ELEMEDGE = drift_before_bend,
DESIGNENERGY = bend_energy, DESIGNENERGY = bend_energy,
L = bend_length, L = bend_length,
......
...@@ -269,13 +269,13 @@ An example of an \emph{injected} \texttt{FROMFILE} distribution definition is: ...@@ -269,13 +269,13 @@ An example of an \emph{injected} \texttt{FROMFILE} distribution definition is:
\begin{verbatim} \begin{verbatim}
Name:DISTRIBUTION, TYPE = FROMFILE, Name:DISTRIBUTION, TYPE = FROMFILE,
FNAME = ``text file name''; FNAME = "text file name";
\end{verbatim} \end{verbatim}
an example of an \emph{emitted} \texttt{FROMFILE} distribution definition is: an example of an \emph{emitted} \texttt{FROMFILE} distribution definition is:
\begin{verbatim} \begin{verbatim}
Name:DISTRIBUTION, TYPE = FROMFILE, Name:DISTRIBUTION, TYPE = FROMFILE,
FNAME = ``text file name'', FNAME = "text file name",
EMITTED = TRUE, EMITTED = TRUE,
EMISSIONMODEL = None; EMISSIONMODEL = None;
\end{verbatim} \end{verbatim}
......
...@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@ The following attributes are allowed on all elements: ...@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@ The following attributes are allowed on all elements:
\begin{description} \begin{description}
\item[TYPE] \item[TYPE]
A {string value} see~Section~\ref{astring}. A {string value} see~Section~\ref{astring}.
It specifies an ``engineering type'' and can be used for element It specifies an "engineering type" and can be used for element
selection. selection.
\item[APERTURE] \item[APERTURE]
A {string value} see~Section~\ref{astring} which describes A {string value} see~Section~\ref{astring} which describes
...@@ -196,7 +196,7 @@ pole faces. Figure~\ref{rbend} shows an \texttt{RBEND} with a positive bend angl ...@@ -196,7 +196,7 @@ pole faces. Figure~\ref{rbend} shows an \texttt{RBEND} with a positive bend angl
\item[FMAPFN] \item[FMAPFN]
Name of the field map for the magnet. Currently maps of type \texttt{1DProfile1} can Name of the field map for the magnet. Currently maps of type \texttt{1DProfile1} can
be used see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}. The default option for this attribute is \texttt{FMAPN} = be used see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}. The default option for this attribute is \texttt{FMAPN} =
``\texttt{1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT}'' see~Section~\ref{benddefaultfieldmapopalt}. The field map is used to "\texttt{1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT}" see~Section~\ref{benddefaultfieldmapopalt}. The field map is used to
describe the fringe fields of the magnet see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}. describe the fringe fields of the magnet see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}.
\end{description} \end{description}
...@@ -244,7 +244,7 @@ pole faces. Figure~\ref{rbend} shows an \texttt{RBEND3D} with a positive bend an ...@@ -244,7 +244,7 @@ pole faces. Figure~\ref{rbend} shows an \texttt{RBEND3D} with a positive bend an
\item[FMAPFN] \item[FMAPFN]
Name of the field map for the magnet. Currently maps of type \texttt{1DProfile1} can Name of the field map for the magnet. Currently maps of type \texttt{1DProfile1} can
be used see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}. The default option for this attribute is \texttt{FMAPN} = be used see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}. The default option for this attribute is \texttt{FMAPN} =
``\texttt{1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT}'' see~Section~\ref{benddefaultfieldmapopalt}. The field map is used to "\texttt{1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT}" see~Section~\ref{benddefaultfieldmapopalt}. The field map is used to
describe the fringe fields of the magnet see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}. describe the fringe fields of the magnet see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}.
\end{description} \end{description}
...@@ -302,7 +302,7 @@ edge angle, and a positive exit edge angle. ...@@ -302,7 +302,7 @@ edge angle, and a positive exit edge angle.
\item[FMAPFN] \item[FMAPFN]
Name of the field map for the magnet. Currently maps of type \texttt{1DProfile1} can Name of the field map for the magnet. Currently maps of type \texttt{1DProfile1} can
be used see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}. The default option for this attribute is \texttt{FMAPN} = be used see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}. The default option for this attribute is \texttt{FMAPN} =
``\texttt{1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT}'' see~Section~\ref{benddefaultfieldmapopalt}. The field map is used to "\texttt{1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT}" see~Section~\ref{benddefaultfieldmapopalt}. The field map is used to
describe the fringe fields of the magnet see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}. describe the fringe fields of the magnet see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}.
\end{description} \end{description}
...@@ -330,7 +330,7 @@ When implementing an \texttt{RBEND} or \texttt{SBEND} in an \textit{OPAL-t} simu ...@@ -330,7 +330,7 @@ When implementing an \texttt{RBEND} or \texttt{SBEND} in an \textit{OPAL-t} simu
\item When using the \texttt{ANGLE} attribute to define a bend, the actual beam will be bent through \item When using the \texttt{ANGLE} attribute to define a bend, the actual beam will be bent through
a different angle if its mean kinetic energy doesn't correspond to the \texttt{DESIGNENERGY}. a different angle if its mean kinetic energy doesn't correspond to the \texttt{DESIGNENERGY}.
\item Internally the bend geometry is setup based on the ideal reference trajectory, as shown in \item Internally the bend geometry is setup based on the ideal reference trajectory, as shown in
Figure~\ref{rbend,sbend}.\item If the default field map, ``\texttt{1DPROFILE-DEFAULT}'' Figure~\ref{rbend,sbend}.\item If the default field map, "\texttt{1DPROFILE-DEFAULT}"
see~Section~\ref{benddefaultfieldmapopalt}, is used, the fringe fields will be adjusted see~Section~\ref{benddefaultfieldmapopalt}, is used, the fringe fields will be adjusted
so that the effective length of the real, soft edge magnet matches the ideal, hard edge bend that is so that the effective length of the real, soft edge magnet matches the ideal, hard edge bend that is
defined by the reference trajectory. defined by the reference trajectory.
...@@ -352,7 +352,7 @@ Bend: RBend, ANGLE = 30.0 * Pi / 180.0, ...@@ -352,7 +352,7 @@ Bend: RBend, ANGLE = 30.0 * Pi / 180.0,
This is a definition of a simple \texttt{RBEND} that bends the beam in a positive direction 30 degrees (towards This is a definition of a simple \texttt{RBEND} that bends the beam in a positive direction 30 degrees (towards
the negative x axis as if Figure~\ref{rbend}). It has a design energy of {10}{MeV}, a length of {0.5}{m}, a the negative x axis as if Figure~\ref{rbend}). It has a design energy of {10}{MeV}, a length of {0.5}{m}, a
vertical gap of {2}cm and a {0}{$^{\circ}$} entrance edge angle. (Therefore the exit edge angle is {30}{$^{\circ}$}.) We are vertical gap of {2}cm and a {0}{$^{\circ}$} entrance edge angle. (Therefore the exit edge angle is {30}{$^{\circ}$}.) We are
using the default, internal field map ``1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT'' see~Section~\ref{benddefaultfieldmapopalt} using the default, internal field map "1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT" see~Section~\ref{benddefaultfieldmapopalt}
which describes the magnet fringe fields see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}. When \textit{OPAL} is run, you will which describes the magnet fringe fields see~Section~\ref{1DProfile1}. When \textit{OPAL} is run, you will
get the following output (assuming an electron beam) for this \texttt{RBEND} definition: get the following output (assuming an electron beam) for this \texttt{RBEND} definition:
...@@ -558,8 +558,8 @@ Bend4: RBend, ANGLE = 20.0 * Pi / 180.0, ...@@ -558,8 +558,8 @@ Bend4: RBend, ANGLE = 20.0 * Pi / 180.0,
ROTATION = Pi; ROTATION = Pi;
\end{verbatim} \end{verbatim}
Up to now, we have only given examples of \texttt{RBEND} definitions. If we replaced ``RBend'' in the above Up to now, we have only given examples of \texttt{RBEND} definitions. If we replaced "RBend" in the above
examples with ``SBend'', we would still be defining valid \textit{OPAL-t} bends. In fact, by adjusting the \texttt{L} examples with "SBend", we would still be defining valid \textit{OPAL-t} bends. In fact, by adjusting the \texttt{L}
attribute according to Section~\ref{RBend,SBend}, and by adding the appropriate attribute according to Section~\ref{RBend,SBend}, and by adding the appropriate
definitions of the \texttt{E2} attribute, we could even get identical results using \texttt{SBEND}s instead of definitions of the \texttt{E2} attribute, we could even get identical results using \texttt{SBEND}s instead of
\texttt{RBEND}s. (As we said, the two bends are very similar in command format.) \texttt{RBEND}s. (As we said, the two bends are very similar in command format.)
...@@ -895,7 +895,7 @@ These are the expressions \textit{OPAL-t} uses to calculate the field inside an ...@@ -895,7 +895,7 @@ These are the expressions \textit{OPAL-t} uses to calculate the field inside an
\index{1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT} \index{1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT}
Rather than force users to calculate the field of a dipole and then fit that field to find Enge coefficients Rather than force users to calculate the field of a dipole and then fit that field to find Enge coefficients
for the dipoles in their simulation, we have a default set of values we use from \ref{enge} that are set for the dipoles in their simulation, we have a default set of values we use from \ref{enge} that are set
when the default field map, ``\texttt{1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT}'' is used: when the default field map, "\texttt{1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT}" is used:
\begin{align*} \begin{align*}
c_{0} &= 0.478959 \\ c_{0} &= 0.478959 \\
...@@ -928,7 +928,7 @@ The default field map is the equivalent of the following custom \texttt{1DProfil ...@@ -928,7 +928,7 @@ The default field map is the equivalent of the following custom \texttt{1DProfil
-1.082657 -1.082657
0.318111 0.318111
\end{verbatim} \end{verbatim}
As one can see, the default magnet gap for ``\texttt{1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT'}'' is set to {2.0}cm. This value As one can see, the default magnet gap for "\texttt{1DPROFILE1-DEFAULT'}" is set to {2.0}cm. This value
can be overridden by the \texttt{GAP} attribute of the magnet (see Section~\ref{RBend,SBend}). can be overridden by the \texttt{GAP} attribute of the magnet (see Section~\ref{RBend,SBend}).
\clearpage \clearpage
...@@ -1821,7 +1821,7 @@ The width of the septum. [{mm}] ...@@ -1821,7 +1821,7 @@ The width of the septum. [{mm}]
\item[PARTICLEMATTERINTERACTION] \item[PARTICLEMATTERINTERACTION]
\texttt{PARTICLEMATTERINTERACTION} is an attribute of the element. Collimator physics is only a kind of particlematterinteraction. \texttt{PARTICLEMATTERINTERACTION} is an attribute of the element. Collimator physics is only a kind of particlematterinteraction.
It can be applied to any element. If the type of \texttt{PARTICLEMATTERINTERACTION} is \texttt{COLLIMATOR}, the material is defined here. It can be applied to any element. If the type of \texttt{PARTICLEMATTERINTERACTION} is \texttt{COLLIMATOR}, the material is defined here.
The material ``Cu", ``Be", ``Graphite" and ``Mo" are defined until now. The material "Cu", "Be", "Graphite" and "Mo" are defined until now.
If this is not set, the particle matter interaction module will not be activated. If this is not set, the particle matter interaction module will not be activated.
The particle hitting collimator will be recorded and directly deleted from the simulation. The particle hitting collimator will be recorded and directly deleted from the simulation.
\end{description} \end{description}
...@@ -1940,7 +1940,7 @@ prob1: Probe, xstart=4166.16, xend=4250.0, ...@@ -1940,7 +1940,7 @@ prob1: Probe, xstart=4166.16, xend=4250.0,
ystart=-1226.85, yend=-1241.3; ystart=-1226.85, yend=-1241.3;
\end{verbatim} \end{verbatim}
The particles probed on the PROBE are recorded in the ASCII file \textit{\textless inputfilename\textgreater.loss}. The particles probed on the PROBE are recorded in the ASCII file \textit{\textless inputfilename\textgreater.loss}.
Please note that these particles are not deleted in the simulation, however, they are recorded in the ``loss" file. Please note that these particles are not deleted in the simulation, however, they are recorded in the "loss" file.
\clearpage \clearpage
......
...@@ -163,7 +163,7 @@ In that case the approach is identical to the Hockney method \ref{hockney, eastw ...@@ -163,7 +163,7 @@ In that case the approach is identical to the Hockney method \ref{hockney, eastw
%When the free space Green function is a symmetric function of $\mathbf{x}-\mathbf{x'}$, a circular shift of the Green function array, moving $\mathbf{x}-\mathbf{x'}=0$ from the %When the free space Green function is a symmetric function of $\mathbf{x}-\mathbf{x'}$, a circular shift of the Green function array, moving $\mathbf{x}-\mathbf{x'}=0$ from the
%center of the grid to the corner corresponding to the origin of grid points, produces a periodic Green function that is identical to the %center of the grid to the corner corresponding to the origin of grid points, produces a periodic Green function that is identical to the
%periodic Green function used in the Hockney method. Viewed this way, the only difference between an ``ordinary" FFT-based convolution %periodic Green function used in the Hockney method. Viewed this way, the only difference between an "ordinary" FFT-based convolution
%and one described by Hockney is a circular shift of the Green function. The usual description of the Hockney approach involves making the Green function periodic and symmetric, %and one described by Hockney is a circular shift of the Green function. The usual description of the Hockney approach involves making the Green function periodic and symmetric,
%but that is because the Green function for the free space potential is symmetric; if the Hockney approach were used to directly compute the electric fields %but that is because the Green function for the free space potential is symmetric; if the Hockney approach were used to directly compute the electric fields
%by convolving the charge density with the electric field Green functions, then the Green functions would have to be anti-symmetrized. %by convolving the charge density with the electric field Green functions, then the Green functions would have to be anti-symmetrized.
...@@ -208,7 +208,7 @@ and $\text{FFT}^{-1}\{ . \}$ denotes a backward FFT in all 3 dimensions. ...@@ -208,7 +208,7 @@ and $\text{FFT}^{-1}\{ . \}$ denotes a backward FFT in all 3 dimensions.
%\nabla^2 \phi(\mathbf{q}) = - \frac{\rho(\mathbf{q})}{\epsilon_0} %\nabla^2 \phi(\mathbf{q}) = - \frac{\rho(\mathbf{q})}{\epsilon_0}
%\end{equation} %\end{equation}
%subject to open boundary conditions in all spatial directions: $\phi (\mathbf{q}) \rightarrow 0$ as $|\mathbf{q}| \rightarrow \infty$ or %subject to open boundary conditions in all spatial directions: $\phi (\mathbf{q}) \rightarrow 0$ as $|\mathbf{q}| \rightarrow \infty$ or
%imposing periodic boundary conditions in longitudinal directions. The assumption of using an ``isolated system`` is physically %imposing periodic boundary conditions in longitudinal directions. The assumption of using an "isolated system" is physically
%motivated by observing the ratio of the beam size to vacuum vessel domensions. It has the computational advantages that one can use cyclic convolution in Equation~\ref{FourierPoisson}. %motivated by observing the ratio of the beam size to vacuum vessel domensions. It has the computational advantages that one can use cyclic convolution in Equation~\ref{FourierPoisson}.
%The computational domain $\Omega \subset \R^3$ is simply connected and has a cylindrical %The computational domain $\Omega \subset \R^3$ is simply connected and has a cylindrical
%or rectilinear shape. %or rectilinear shape.
......
...@@ -118,7 +118,7 @@ Using the concept of dominance, the sought-after set of Pareto optimal ...@@ -118,7 +118,7 @@ Using the concept of dominance, the sought-after set of Pareto optimal
solutions. solutions.
The problem of deciding if a point truly belongs to the Pareto set is NP-hard. The problem of deciding if a point truly belongs to the Pareto set is NP-hard.
As shown in Figure~\ref{fig:pareto-def} there exist ``weaker'' formulations of As shown in Figure~\ref{fig:pareto-def} there exist "weaker" formulations of
Pareto optimality. Pareto optimality.
Of special interest is the result shown in \ref{paya:01}, where the authors Of special interest is the result shown in \ref{paya:01}, where the authors
present a polynomial (in the input size of the problem and $1/\varepsilon$) present a polynomial (in the input size of the problem and $1/\varepsilon$)
......
...@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@ ...@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@
Before starting to track, a beam line see~Section~\ref{line} \ifthenelse{\boolean{ShowMap}}{or Before starting to track, a beam line see~Section~\ref{line} \ifthenelse{\boolean{ShowMap}}{or
sequence see~Section~\ref{sequence}}{} and a beam see~Chapter~\ref{beam} must be selected. sequence see~Section~\ref{sequence}}{} and a beam see~Chapter~\ref{beam} must be selected.
The time step (\texttt{DT}) and the maximal steps to track (\texttt{MAXSTEPS}) or \texttt{ZSTOP} should be set. This command causes \textit{OPAL} to enter ``tracking mode'', The time step (\texttt{DT}) and the maximal steps to track (\texttt{MAXSTEPS}) or \texttt{ZSTOP} should be set. This command causes \textit{OPAL} to enter "tracking mode",
in which it accepts only the track commands see~Table~\ref{trackcmd}. In order to preform several tracks, specify arrays of parameter in which it accepts only the track commands see~Table~\ref{trackcmd}. In order to preform several tracks, specify arrays of parameter
in \texttt{DT}, \texttt{MAXSTEPS} and \texttt{ZSTOP}. This can be used to change the time step manually. in \texttt{DT}, \texttt{MAXSTEPS} and \texttt{ZSTOP}. This can be used to change the time step manually.
......
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